A memorandum of understanding (MOU) is a document that defines a bilateral or
multilateral agreement between two parties. This document specifies a convergence of will
between the parties, representing a proposed common line of action. A memorandum of
understanding is generally used in those cases where parties do not imply a legal
commitment or in those situations where the parties are unable to create a legally
enforceable agreement. It is a proper substitute of a gentlemen's agreement.
Answer option A is incorrect. Patent laws are used to protect the duplication of software.
Software patents cover the algorithms and techniques that are used in creating the
software. It does not cover the entire program of the software. Patents give the author the
right to make and sell his product. The time of the patent of a product is limited though, i.e.,
the author of the product has the right to use the patent for only a specific length of time.
Answer option C is incorrect. A memorandum of agreement (MOU) is a document that is
written between two parties to cooperatively work together on a project for meeting the pre-
decided objectives. The principle of an MOA is to keep a written understanding of the
agreement between two parties.
A memorandum of agreement is used in various heritage projects. It can also be used
between agencies, the public and the federal or state governments, communities, and
individuals. A memorandum of agreement (MOA) lays out the main principles of a positive
Answer option D is incorrect. Certification and Accreditation (C&A or CnA) is a process for
implementing information security. It is a systematic procedure for evaluating, describing,
testing, and authorizing systems prior to or after a system is in operation. The C8A process
is used extensively in the U.S. Federal Government. Some C&A processes include FISMA,
NIACAP, DIACAP, and DCID 6/3.
Certification is a comprehensive assessment of the management, operationa